Hyperprolactinemia develops when the concentration of prolactin in the blood rises. This hormone is produced by the pituitary gland. Prolactin is responsible for the production of breast milk after the birth of a child, stimulates the production of hormones such as estrogen, is responsible for the menstrual cycle and egg maturation. Since this hormone is directly related to reproduction and sexual function, it is also produced in smaller amounts by men.
In them, it stimulates the production of testosterone and is responsible for sperm motility.

Hyperprolactinemia can be physiological or pathological. Physiologically, the level of prolactin in women increases during sleep, after exercise, stress, during intercourse, pregnancy and in the postpartum period.

Pathological hyperprolactinemia is divided into functional and organic. The first usually occurs in the presence of chronic diseases: hypothyroidism, cirrhosis of the liver, renal failure, polycystic ovary syndrome. Sometimes the level of prolactin in the blood rises after surgery and injuries of the chest, as well as with frequent curettage of the uterine cavity.

Organic hyperprolactinemia is caused by pituitary tumors such as macroprolactinoma and microprolactinoma. They are distinguished by size. The symptoms of these tumors vary depending on their size and the gender of the patient.

Hyperprolactinemia may occur while taking certain medications. Prolactin rises with an overdose of neuroleptics, prostaglandins, antidepressants, estrogens, drugs to lower blood pressure and oral contraceptives.

There is also an idiopathic form of hyperlactinemia, which develops if the pituitary gland cells begin to function intensively, while in size they can and not increase.

In women, hyperprolactinemia is manifested by delayed menstruation or amenorrhea, insufficiency of the second phase of the menstrual cycle, impaired ovulation, milk or colostrum is secreted from the mammary glands. All these disorders often lead to infertility.

In men, the production of testosterone is inhibited, which reduces libido, impotence develops, and then infertility.

In order to correctly diagnose, it is necessary to determine the level of prolactin in the blood. For this, blood is taken from a vein in the morning. It is important that the hormonal examination is carried out between the fifth and eighth days of the menstrual cycle. To exclude a short-term increase in prolactin in the blood, tests are done at least three times.

Organic hyperprolactinemia is diagnosed using computed tomography, craniography, and magnetic resonance imaging.

Prolactin-producing pituitary tumors are treated with certain medications. After a few weeks of such treatment, women notice the normalization of the menstrual cycle, the ability to conceive is restored. It is worth noting that if a woman is not going to become a mother in the near future, then it is recommended to protect herself, since after such treatment, pregnancy occurs quite quickly. In men, after the treatment, testosterone production normalizes, after which normal sex life returns.

Most often, conservative treatment is prescribed for hyperlactinemia, since this is usually enough to reduce the level of prolactin in the blood. But, quite rarely, there are macroprolactinomas that do not decrease after drug treatment. Then the patient is prescribed radiation therapy and undergoes surgery.

Based on materials from http://anti-besplodie.ru/

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